MAQASED (HIGHER PURPOSES)
Considering the process of formation and historical development of usûl (foundational science), which paved the way for the production of thought in Islamic sciences, it is not only a science that explains and bases the way of production of Fiqh rulings, it is an important discipline that sets the limits of legitimacy in the production of religious knowledge and the basis for philosophical thoughts. In addition, Usûl has the function of determining the framework of rulemaking. For this reason, Usûl al-Fiqh was the basis of legitimacy, not only for the knowledge revealed through Fiqh, but also for other religious sciences, and in a way, it established the limits of being able to speak in the name of religion. The rules of usûl have always been used in the understanding of Qur'an and Sunnah and in the interpretation of verses and hadiths. Therefore, an assessment without a seal of approval from Usûl-which have become the common frame of reference for Muslims- has not been considered as legitimate.
The concept of makâsıd originated in the context of the categorisation of the “proper qualities” within the systematics of the classical method. Daruriyyat (absolute necessities), hajiyyat (expedient necessities), and tahsiniyyat (accomplished interests) were proposed by Ghazali under the name of three titles, and the daruriyat category was composed of five essential precepts in the form of the protection of faith, life, intellect/ reason, lineage, and property. It is obvious that such a concept of makâsıd has limited opportunities to respond to the issues of the present day.
For this reason, in order to overcome the procedural problem in Islamic sciences, that is, to give functionality, consistency and integrity to Islamic sciences today, it is necessary to re-address the whole purpose and aims of religion beyond the narrow meaning of the makâsıd. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the existing provisions in Fiqh literature in terms of applicability and in addition to elaborating and developing an understanding of makasid in order to bring new issues to resolve. In other words, it is imperative to re-evaluate the purpose of religion to cover all the aims and goals, not only cover the makâsıd al-Shari’ah, but also the purposes of being (makâsıdu't-tekvin), the purposes of civil life (makâsıdu'l-umran), the purposes of revelation (makâsıdu't-tenzil), the original purposes of the Qur’an (makâsıd al-Qur’an), the purposes of Sunnah (makâsıd al-Sunnah), and the purposes of obligation (makâsıdu't-teklif).
In fact, there is nothing meaningless (lağw), pointless (sahw), or useless (lahw) in the creation of Allah and the religion he sent. However, narrow, wrong meanings and comments can lead us to exercises in futility. The only thing that will save us from engaging futility is to re-express the mercy, wisdom, justice, and duty of the religion in a comprehensible language by correctly identifying the place and meaning of the makâsıd in the religion.
One issue that needs to be addressed regarding makasid which is the issue of changing ahkâm (jurisprudential rulings). This topic has been discussed in Fiqh literature in the context of specific issues, but has not been able to provide an understanding to solve today's issues. In this context, in terms of the dynamics of Islamic jurisprudence, the following three principles will guide us: “with the change of time and place, there can be no denying of the change in Ahkam (rulings) .“, "if the implementation of a ruling that is legitimized to achieve a particular purpose gives a result contrary to that purpose, the relevant ruling shall become invalid.“, and "a ruling that aims to achieve a specific goal becomes invalid by the elimination of that goal.” In cases we neglected these issue, Fiqh will not be able to answer today’s issues.
The Institute of Islamic thought believes that makâsıd should take place in Islamic sciences as a distinct field . It also proposes that the issue of the amendment of Ahkâm should be taken into the structure of usûl (procedures) in connection with makâsıd and ijtihad